Concentrations of Selected Radionuclides and Chemicals
in Fish, Sediment, and Water Collected from
the Putah Creek Near the
Former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research
Davis, CA

Prepared by:
Clinton Cox, PhD
USEPA-NAREL
540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36115-2601

Reviewed by:
Scott Telofski, PE
USEPA-NAREL

Prepared for:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
1600 Clifton Road, NE
Atlanta, GA 30333

NAREL
National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory

31 March 1997

INTRODUCTION

The Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) was a research facility located on the University of California-Davis campus from 1958 to 1988. The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), funded the operation of the LEHR primarily to research the long-term effects of low exposure doses of Ra-226 and Sr-90 in beagles. Today, the University of California-Davis operates the Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Health at the location of the former LEHR site.

In December 1995, The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released a report entitled "Site Summary, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California." In this report, ATSDR recommended that "the fish in Putah Creek should be sampled." In January 1996, ATSDR asked NAREL to conduct a study of fish collected from Putah Creek which flows east about 250 ft from the southern boundary of the former LEHR site (see Figure 1).

BACKGROUND

During August 1996, NAREL in conjunction with ATSDR, USEPA Region 9, and other stakeholders authored sampling and analysis guidelines entitled "Sampling and Analysis Guidelines for Fish, Sediment, and Water Samples from the Putah Creek Adjacent to the Former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, CA" with the final version dated August 24, 1996. These Guidelines are included herein as Appendix A. Within these Guidelines selected radionuclides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals were identified for analysis. During the period from August 27, 1996 to September 12, 1996, USEPA Region 9 field personnel collected fish, sediment, and water samples from three locations downstream from the former LEHR site. Also, background samples were collected from one location upstream from the site. Table 1 shows the latitude and longitude for each sampling site, and Figure 1 shows the geographical locations of the sampling sites.

Table 1. Sampling Locations in Putah Creek Adjacent to the LEHR Site, Aug 27-Sep 12, 1996

Sampling Locations for Fish, Sediment , and Water

Sampling Location

Latitude

Longitude

1

N 38o 31' 2.0"

W 121o 45' 22.1"

2

N 38o 31' 1.6"

W 121o 43' 58.0"

3

N 38o 31' 0.7"

W 121o 42' 46.8"

4 (background)

N 38o 31' 34.4"

W 121o 48' 42.9"

 

Figure 1. Map of LEHR Site and Putah Creek with Locations of the Four Sampling Sites

For the above sampling locations, the species and weights of fish collected are presented in Table 2. Putah Creek is a small creek with a limited fish population that is in close proximity to the former LEHR site. Because of the limited fish population, the large number of analyses requiring separate aliquots, and the low detection limits required, it was necessary to composite many of the fish samples to obtain an analytical sample large enough to perform all requested analyses. Even with compositing, it was not possible to perform all the requested analyses on some fish samples. Although it is preferable to composite only the same species of fish within a length (i.e., age) range, it was not possible to do so in this study for the reasons stated above. The fish species and composited samples with whole and fillet wet weights are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Fish Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility, Aug 27-Sep 12, 1996

Location

Fish Species (#)

Whole Wet Weight

(g)

Fillet Wet Weight

(g)

1

Black Crappie (2)

489

168

Bluegill (1)

136

37

Large Mouth Bass (2)

1122

421

Composite 1 (5)

1747

626

Crayfish (10)

413

38

Black Bullhead (4)

1115

209

White Catfish (2)

1492

262

Composite 2 (16)

3020

509

2

Carp (1)

1564

367

Black Bullhead (1)

212

46

Composite (2)

1776

413

Large Month Bass (1)

650

188

3

Black Crappie (2)

364

92

Large Mouth Bass (1)

1234

362

Composite 1 (3)

1598

454

Crayfish (9)

289

26

Carp (1)

1696

495

Composite 2 (10)

1985

521

White Catfish (1)

2624

670

4(background)

Bluegill (78)

1906

394

Green Sunfish (13)

627

127

Large Month Bass (3)

192

45

Crayfish (8)

221

42

White Catfish (1)

89

12

Composite (103)

3035

620

 

METHODOLOGY

Fish, water, and sediment samples were collected and shipped under chain-of-custody following the above referenced Guidelines (see Appendix A and B). Samples were received, analyzed, and subsequent results reported following the above referenced Guidelines (see Appendix A), NAREL standard operating procedures (SOPs), and the NAREL Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The definition of terms and acronyms used in the SOPs and the reporting of the results are located in Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories (8).

RESULTS

The results for this study are reported in the following tables. These tables were generated from Data Quality Packages (DQPs) produced from the radiological and chemical analyses performed for this study. The DQPs (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17) noted only minor quality assurance exceptions, which did not affect the reported data values, e.g., not enough sample to perform analysis. For specific exceptions, qualifiers, and QA/QC results, see DQP references 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. [NOTE: These DQPs can be obtained from NAREL by contacting Dr. John Griggs at 334-270-3450.] General information regarding gamma spectrometry and gross alpha/beta results is presented in Appendix C. Tables 3 through 5 present the analytical results for the water samples. Tables 6 through 8 present the analytical results for the sediment samples. Tables 9 through 11 present the analytical results for the fish samples.

Table 3. Radiological Results for Water Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility



Analyte

Site #1
LEHR96.05001/X
(pCi/L)

Site #2
LEHR96.05000/X
(pCi/L)

Site #3
LEHR96.05005
(pCi/L)

Site #4
LEHR96.04998
(pCi/L)

Gross Alpha

2.571.93

3.182.19

5.712.75

NA

4.572.54

1.761.73

Gross Beta

3.632.20

5.292.46

4.412.39

NA

6.872.67

2.762.22

U-238

0.27090.0699

NA

0.34300.0798

0.38190.0813

0.37370.0698

0.27370.0678

U-234

0.63060.1101

NA

0.51390.0984

0.64140.1075

0.64650.0937

0.62380.1055

Th-230

0.04140.0289

NA

0.06240.0340

0.04560.0326

0.04800.0267

0.04110.0282

Ra-226 ()

77.5

74.3

78.0

NA

79.2

85.6

Ra-226

0.260.03

0.220.05

0.070.01

NA

0.090.02

0.110.02

U-235

0.04630.0310

ND

0.04230.0309

0.02090.0221

0.08350.0350

0.05990.0361

Th-227

0.00950.0291

NA

0.00900.0275

0.06390.0635

0.01230.0214

0.03640.0364

Th-232

0.02380.0238

NA

0.01010.0156

0.01180.0182

0.04550.0268

0.01030.0158

Ra-228 ()

17.0

17.1

16.8

NA

16.2

24.0

Ra-228

2.91.0

1.01.0

0.350.75

NA

-0.120.78

0.880.73

Th-228

0.02020.0680

NA

0.02400.0651

0.02840.0718

0.02310.0555

-0.03300.0518

Tl-208

ND

ND

1.673.06

NA

ND

ND

Pu-238

0.00720.0131

NA

0.02860.0317

-0.00770.0292

0.06400.0564

0.02630.0358

Pu-239/240

-0.00120.0024

NA

0.001360.0090

0.01240.0164

0.00210.0137

0.00000.0101

K-40

51.6

54.9

51.6

NA

51.9

33.262.8

C-14

-8082

-7282

-9681

NA

-7782

NA

Ba-140

99.9

101

96.2

NA

99.0

161

Co-60

5.84

5.28

6.43

NA

5.62

8.44

Cs-137

4.52

4.31

4.16

NA

4.48

6.58

I-131

79.7

79.0

79.4

NA

80.2

101

Sr-89

-3.014.76

NA

3.784.80

NA

2.084.80

1.904.41*

Sr-90

0.5710.717

NA

-0.4000.755

NA

0.01120.757

-0.1340.667*

() -- measured by gamma spectrometry with a corresponding radiochemical analysis. ND -- not detected.

NA -- not available or not analyzed. X -- designates a replicate analysis.

* Replicate analysis: Sr-89, 7.474.96 pCi/L; Sr-90, -0.7500.740 pCi/L.

Note: Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17). "Less than value" is equal to the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC); see Appendix C.

Table 4. Inorganic Results For Water Collected From Putah Creek Near The Former LEHR Facility



Analyte



CAS Number

Site #1
LEHR96.05001X
(g/L or ppb)

Site #2
LEHR96.05000
(g/L or ppb)

Site #3
LEHR96.05005
(g/L or ppb)

Site #4
LEHR96.04998
(g/L or ppb)

Antimony

7440-36-0

2.48B

4.43B

2.24B

2.52B

1.94B

Arsenic

7440-38-2

3.08B

2.03B

2.29B

3.08B

1.31B

Barium

7440-39-3

190.0B

260.0B

530.0B

570.0B

400.0B

Cadmium

7440-43-9

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

Chromium

7440-47-3

60.0B

60.0B

30.0B

50.0B

30.0B

Cobalt

7440-48-4

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.6B

2.5

Lead

7439-92-1

3.02

1.57B

1.26

1.52B

1.26

Mercury

7439-97-6

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Nickel

7440-02-0

7.1B

8.07B

5.5

17.8B

5.5

Selenium

7782-49-2

1.07

1.07

1.07

1.07

1.07

Silver

7440-22-4

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.21B

Thallium

7440-28-0

0.80

0.80

2.01B

0.80

0.80

Vanadium

7440-62-2

7.8B

7.5B

7.2B

12.5B

6.1B

Zinc

7440-66-6

70.0

80.0

60.0

70.0

60.0

B The value is less than the Reporting Limit but greater than or equal to the Instrument Detection Limit (IDL).

X The values in the second column are from a replicate analysis.

Note: The "less than value" is the IDL, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (15, 17).

Table 5. Organic Results For Water Collected From Putah Creek Near The Former LEHR Facility



Analyte



CAS Number

Site #1
LEHR96.05001
(g/L or ppb)

Site #2
LEHR96.05000
(g/L or ppb)

Site #3
LEHR96.05005
(g/L or ppb)

Site #4
LEHR96.04997
(g/L or ppb)

Chlordane (Total)

57-74-9

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

4,4"-DDT

50-29-3

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Dicofol

115-32-2

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Dieldrin

60-57-1

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Endosulfan I

959-98-8

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Endosulfan II

33213-65-9

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Endrin

72-20-8

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Lindane

58-89-9

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

Aroclor 1016

12674-11-2

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Aroclor 1221

11104-28-2

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Aroclor 1232

11141-16-5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Aroclor 1242

53469-21-9

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Aroclor 1248

12672-29-6

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Aroclor 1254

11097-69-1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Aroclor 1260

11096-82-5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Note: The "less than value" is the Reporting Limit, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (16, 17).

Table 6. Radiological Results for Sediment Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility



Analyte

Site #1
LEHR96.05002/X
(pCi/g-dry)

Site #2
LEHR96.05003
(pCi/g-dry)

Site #3
LEHR96.05004
(pCi/g-dry)

Site #4
LEHR96.04999/X
(pCi/g-dry)

Gross Alpha

7.175.25

5.915.01

8.005.21

10.25.70

7.425.53

NA

Gross Beta

14.83.31

13.43.16

17.13.38

12.63.06

12.43.19

NA

U-238

0.3430.0779

0.4350.0904

0.6310.102

0.4590.0727

0.5230.0971

NA

Th-234

ND

NA

0.3990.150

ND

ND

ND

U-234

0.5550.101

0.5440.101

0.6270.100

0.5650.0810

0.4310.088

NA

Th-230

0.3690.0707

0.3870.0682

0.5760.0843

0.4880.0753

0.5490.0863

NA

Ra-226 ()

0.6980.145

NA

1.300.223

0.8600.207

1.060.216

1.240.201

Ra-226

0.430.04

0.410.03

0.920.04

0.590.03

0.710.04

NA

Pb-214

0.3140.0158

NA

0.4810.0214

0.3850.0198

0.4840.0219

0.5610.0209

Bi-214

0.2860.0169

NA

0.4580.0230

0.3690.0212

0.4450.0238

0.5180.0219

U-235

0.02850.0275

0.06840.0400

0.08060.0400

0.04830.0250

0.06980.0392

0.07550.0122

U-235 ()

ND

NA

0.07990.0134

ND

ND

ND

Th-227

0.01830.0254

0.04140.0308

0.02560.0248

0.02070.0207

0.05020.0366

NA

Ra-223

ND

NA

0.06810.0448

ND

ND

ND

Th-232

0.2900.0624

0.3260.0624

0.5870.0851

0.5450.0795

0.4770.0802

NA

Ra-228 ()

0.2960.0210

NA

0.5940.0316

0.4200.0296

0.4830.0313

0.5320.0295

Ra-228

1.10.56

0.990.52

1.70.54

0.940.56

0.990.65

NA

Th-228

0.3140.0654

0.3320.0638

0.6760.0919

0.4140.0699

0.5100.0831

NA

Ra-224

0.2230.155

NA

0.4700.218

0.2760.219

0.4770.230

0.5780.207

Pb-212

0.3040.0165

NA

0.6750.0236

0.4320.0202

0.5620.0230

0.5740.0217

Bi-212

0.3490.0901

NA

0.6270.126

0.4880.105

0.5910.121

0.5010.117

Tl-208

0.1130.00936

NA

0.2160.0127

0.1540.0117

0.1730.0128

0.1990.0127

Pu-238

-0.004860.0335

-0.002720.0265

0.004750.0369

0.00000.0075

0.02240.0416

NA

Pu-239/240

0.02270.0215

0.008180.0147

0.003170.0098

0.006060.0084

0.002030.0132

NA

K-40

8.350.193

NA

13.70.271

9.830.253

9.870.266

9.920.239

Cs-137

0.01400.0057

NA

0.0167

0.02450.0079

0.0186

0.0179

Ba-140

0.308

NA

0.360

0.337

0.405

3.64

Co-60

0.0171

NA

0.0211

0.0194

0.0224

0.0201

I-131

0.250

NA

0.292

0.246

0.330

11.6

Sr-89

6.384.78+

NA

1.293.76

1.704.14

0.6734.01

2.353.84

Sr-90

-0.6620.659

NA

-0.1280.561

-0.3290.656

0.03510.612

0.1870.561

Note: Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17). "Less than value" is equal to the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC); see Appendix C. -- measured by gamma spectrometry. ND - not detected. NA - not analyzed. + -- less than MDC; see Appendix C. X - designates replicate analysis.

Table 7. Inorganic Results for Sediment Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility

Analyte

CAS Number

Site #1
LEHR96.05002X
(mg/kg or ppm)

Site #2
LEHR96.05003
(mg/kg or ppm)

Site #3
LEHR96.05004
(mg/kg or ppm)

Site #4
LEHR96.04999X
(mg/kg or ppm)

Antimony

7440-36-0

0.64B

0.54B

1.11B

0.92B

1.36

NA

Arsenic

7440-38-2

6.19

NA

10.12

5.92

12.09

12.35

Barium

7440-39-3

49.36

57.22B

98.05B

82.77B

127.01B

NA

Cadmium

7440-43-9

0.09

NA

0.09

0.10

0.48

0.19B

Chromium

7440-47-3

239.94

292.32

89.79

220.18

173.32

NA

Cobalt

7440-48-4

20.9

20.91

15.0

16.2

21.3

NA

Lead

7439-92-1

7.22

NA

9.93

9.06

9.27

9.52

Mercury

7439-97-6

0.15

0.18

0.03

0.03

0.03

NA

Nickel

7440-02-0

248

247.69

65.1

175

177

NA

Selenium

7782-49-2

0.29B

NA

0.31B

0.37B

0.40B

0.33B

Silver

7440-22-4

0.42

NA

0.07B

0.25B

0.11B

0.05B

Thallium

7440-28-0

0.21

NA

0.23B

0.22

0.22B

0.22B

Vanadium

7440-62-2

42.00

42.02

56.9

43.1

59.3

NA

Zinc

7440-66-6

102.45

150.32

162.04

116.99

105.32

NA

B The value is less than the Reporting Limit but greater than or equal to the Instrument Detection Limit (IDL).

X The values in the second column are from a replicate analysis. NA -- not analyzed.

Note: Units are on a dry basis. The "less than value" is the IDL, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (15, 17).

Table 8. Organic Results for Sediment Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility

Analyte

CAS Number

Site #1
LEHR96.05002
(g/kg or ppb)

Site #2
LEHR96.05003
(g/kg or ppb)

Site #3
LEHR96.05004
(g/kg or ppb)

Site #4
LEHR96.04999 (g/kg or ppb)

Chlordane (Total)

57-74-9

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

4,4"-DDT

50-29-3

4.3

4.2

4.5

4.4

Dicofol

115-32-2

8.6

8.4

9.0

8.7

Dieldrin

60-57-1

4.3

4.2

4.5

4.4

Endosulfan I

959-98-8

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

Endosulfan II

33213-65-9

4.3

4.2

4.5

4.4

Endrin

72-20-8

4.3

4.2

4.5

4.4

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

Lindane

58-89-9

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.2

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

220

220

230

220

Aroclor 1016

12674-11-2

43

42

45

43

Aroclor 1221

11104-28-2

86

84

92

88

Aroclor 1232

11141-16-5

43

42

45

43

Aroclor 1242

53469-21-9

43

42

45

43

Aroclor 1248

12672-29-6

43

42

45

43

Aroclor 1254

11097-69-1

43

42

45

43

Aroclor 1260

11096-82-5

43

42

45

43

Note: Units are on a dry basis. The "less than value" is the Reporting Limit, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (16, 17).

Table 9. Radiological Results for Fish Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility



Analyte

Site #1, Comp 1/Comp 1/Comp 2
LEHR96.05987/7X/8
(pCi/g-wet)

Site #2, Comp/LMB
LEHR96.05989/73
(pCi/g-wet)

Site #3, Comp 1, Comp 2, WCF
LEHR96.05990/91/81
(pCi/g-wet)

Site #4, Comp
LEHR96.05992
(pCi/g-wet)

Gross Alpha

0.09330.0792

NA

0.09170.0859

0.008250.0547

NA

0.0000.0580

-0.002850.0403

0.02070.0408

0.04760.0732

Gross Beta

3.360.142

NA

3.130.143

3.120.135

NA

3.440.149

3.130.135

3.290.128

3.140.165

U-238

0.0005240.000349

NA

0.001220.000521

0.0006460.000421

0.0005400.000473

0.0008630.000490

0.0008760.000471

0.0001020.000187

0.001310.000528

Th-234

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

U-234

0.0004750.000353

NA

0.001100.000500

0.0008550.000475

0.0007310.000546

0.001770.000639

0.001700.000636

0.000408.0.000314

0.001500.000570

Th-230

0.0000990.000114

NA

0.001770.000554

0.0008120.000334

0.0002220.000216

0.0007110.000379

0.0005620.000308

0.0005460.000368

0.001130.000674

Ra-226 ()

0.0907

0.0891

0.198

0.181

0.279

0.354

0.108

0.0799

0.0910

Ra-226

0.030.01

NA

0.030.01

0.070.01

0.030.01

-0.010.01

0.010.01

0.040.01*

0.020.01

Pb-214

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Bi-214

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

U-235

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

U-235 ()

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Th-227

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Ra-223

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Th-232

0.0001540.000149

NA

0.004750.000907

0.004100.000753

0.0000.000110

0.0001520.000211

0.0002880.000217

-0.00004940.000262

0.0003540.000391

Ra-228 ()

0.0203

0.0317

0.0506

0.0469

0.0619

0.0685

0.0340

0.0289

0.0223

Ra-228

0.180.15

NA

0.070.15

0.060.13

0.100.18

0.190.18

0.160.17

0.400.20

0.200.19

Th-228

-0.001950.000263

NA

0.003480.00102

0.003510.000902

-0.002900.000538

-0.0005100.000633

0.0006790.000414

-0.0003680.000639

0.0006070.00121

Ra-224

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Pb-212

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.02090.0216

ND

ND

ND

Bi-212

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Tl-208

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Pu-238

-0.0003870.000415

0.00003620.000114

-0.0001690.000313

0.00001070.000126

NA

0.00005160.000103

0.0003870.000485

0.0001920.000339

0.0002150.000625

Pu-239/240

0.0000.000141

0.00003620.000114

0.00005630.000172

0.00003210.0000641

NA

0.00008610.000150

0.00007380.000165

0.0000.000

-0.00005370.0000760

K-40

3.110.101

3.040.147

2.540.224

2.840.174

3.410.229

2.940.211

2.990.166

3.010.137

2.620.0948

C-14

4.91.8

NA

5.41.7

3.91.9

2.42.1

3.62.8

4.81.6

3.81.6*

2014

Cs-137

0.00538

0.00739

0.0157

0.0132

0.0175

0.0192

0.00929

0.00657

0.00571

Ba-140

0.251

0.594

0.565

1.13

0.268

0.861

0.356

0.0907

0.398

Co-60

0.00665

0.0100

0.0129

0.0151

0.0221

0.0248

0.0131

0.0106

0.00802

Hg-203

0.01370.00431

0.01090.0054

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

I-131

0.298

0.989

0.711

2.45

0.188

1.08

0.387

0.0550

0.575

Sr-89

0.08240.0691+

0.05610.0954

-0.003650.0625

-0.02080.0477

NA

0.03690.0664

-0.01230.0634

0.0002160.0537

-0.05370.113

Sr-90

-0.009030.00954

-0.003660.0133

0.002170.0103

0.006180.00686

NA

-0.007170.0111

0.004170.0107

0.003000.00882

0.01390.0163

-- measured by gamma spectrometry with a corresponding radiochemical analysis. ND -- not detected. NA -- not analyzed. + -- less than Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC); see Appendix C. X -- designates a

replicate analysis. *-- Replicate analysis, C-14, 151.8; Ra-226, 0.030.01; Ra-228, 0.640.28. Note: Values in this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17). "Less than value" is equal to the MDC; see Appendix C.

Table 10. Inorganic Results for Fish Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility



Analyte



CAS Number

Site #1, Comp 1/2
LEHR96.05987/8
(mg/kg-wet or ppm-wet)

Site #2, LMB/Comp
LEHR96.05973/89
(mg/kg-wet or ppm-wet)

Site #3, WCF/WCF/Comp 1/Comp 2
LEHR96.05981/81X/90/91
(mg/kg-wet or ppm-wet)

Site #4, Comp
LEHR96.05992
(mg/kg-wet or ppm-wet)

Antimony

7440-36-0

0.38B

0.49B

0.70

0.44B

0.75

0.52

0.53

0.41B

0.84

Arsenic

7440-38-2

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.11B

0.06

Barium

7440-39-3

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

Cadmium

7440-43-9

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

Chromium

7440-47-3

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

Cobalt

7440-48-4

0.25

0.25

0.45

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.29B

0.25

Lead

7439-92-1

0.28B

1.06

0.20B

0.17B

0.17B

0.08

0.24B

0.19B

0.08

Mercury

7439-97-6

0.69

0.15

0.25

0.16

0.48

0.46

0.24

0.13

0.13

Nickel

7440-02-0

0.55

0.90B

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

Selenium

7782-49-2

0.27B

0.08

0.25B

0.25B

0.08

0.08

0.23B

0.36B

0.33B

Silver

7440-22-4

0.04B

0.03B

0.65

0.02B

0.03B

0.03B

0.01B

0.01B

0.01B

Thallium

7440-28-0

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.12B

0.10B

0.06

0.06

0.06

Vanadium

7440-62-2

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

Zinc

7440-66-6

9.80

8.70

12.0

13.4

6.10

11.6

8.70

15.3

17.60

B The value is less than the Reporting Limit but greater than or equal to the Instrument Detection Limit (IDL).

X The values in the second column are from a replicate analysis.

Note: The "less than value" is the IDL, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in this table were extracted

from LEHR Data Quality Packages (15, 17).

Table 11. Organic Results for Fish Collected from Putah Creek near the Former LEHR Facility



Analyte



CAS Number

Site #1, Comp 1/2

LEHR96.05987/8
(g/kg-wet or ppb-wet)

Site #2, LMB/Comp
LEHR96.05973/89
(g/kg-wet or ppb-wet)

Site #3, WCF/ Comp 1/Comp 2
LEHR96.05981/90/91
(g/kg-wet or ppb-wet)

Site #4, Comp
LEHR96.05992
(g/kg-wet or ppb-wet)

Chlordane (Total)

57-74-9

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

4,4"-DDT

50-29-3

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

20.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

Dicofol

115-32-2

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

Dieldrin

60-57-1

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

Endosulfan I

959-98-8

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.1

5.0

5.0

5.0

Endosulfan II

33213-65-9

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

Endrin

72-20-8

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

Lindane

58-89-9

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

510

510

510

510

510

510

510

510

Aroclor 1016

12674-11-2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Aroclor 1221

11104-28-2

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Aroclor 1232

11141-16-5

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Aroclor 1242

53469-21-9

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Aroclor 1248

12672-29-6

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Aroclor 1254

11097-69-1

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Aroclor 1260

11096-82-5

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Note: The "less than value" is the Reporting Limit, i.e., analyte was analyzed for but not detected. Values in

this table were extracted from LEHR Data Quality Packages (16, 17).

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

In Table 3, radionuclide concentrations for water samples collected from Putah Creek down-stream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the radionuclide concentrations for the background location (Site #4), the radionuclide concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location. Also, when the radionuclide concentrations for downstream and the background location are compared to relevant standards and guidelines presented in Table 12 below, the radionuclide concentrations for the samples are not greater than the standards and guidelines.

Table 12. Relevant Standards and Guidelines for Acceptable Radionuclide Concentrations in Water

Analyte

USEPA Drinking Water Standards (1)

Other Standards and Guidelines

Gross Alpha

15 pCi/L

 

Gross Beta

30 pCi/L

 

U-238

30 pCi/L (7 pCi/L) (total U)+

 

U-234

30pCi/L (7 pCi/L) (total U)+

 

Th-230

 

7000 pCi/L (2)

Ra-226

20 pCi/L

 

U-235

30 pCi/L (7 pCi/L) (total U)+

 

Th-227

 

 

Th-232

 

2000 pCi/L (2)

Ra-228

20 pCi/L

 

Th-228

 

2000 pCi/L (2)

Tl-208

 

 

Pu-238 (soluble)

 

5 pCi/L (2)

Pu-239/240 (soluble) each

 

5 pCi/L (2)

K-40

 

 

C-14

 

 

Ba-140

90 pCi/L

 

Co-60

100 pCi/L

 

Cs-137

200 pCi/L

 

I-131

3 pCi/L

 

Sr 89/90

8 pCi/L

 

+ In the 1991 USEPA Proposed Drinking Water Regulations for Radionuclides, the Minimum Concentration Limit (MCL) allowed for total U is 20 g/L which is equivalent to 7 pCi/L; however, in Figure 2 (of the proposed regulations) to determine compliance, the total U MCL is 30 pCi/L.

In Table 4, metal concentrations for water samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the metal concentrations for the background location (Site #4), metal concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location except for lead at Site #1, 3.02 ppb compared to 1.26 ppb. However, when the metal concentrations for downstream and the background location are compared to relevant standards and guidelines presented in Table 13, the metal concentrations for the samples are not greater than the standards and/or guidelines including the comparison action level for lead, 3.02 ppb compared to 15 ppb.

Table 13. Relevant Standards and Guidelines for Acceptable Metal Concentrations in Water

Analyte

CAS Number

USEPA Drinking Water Standard (1)

Other Standards and Guidelines

Antimony

7440-36-0

6 ppb

 

Arsenic

7440-38-2

50 ppb

 

Barium

7440-39-3

2000 ppb

 

Cadmium

7440-43-9

5 ppb

 

Chromium

7440-47-3

100 ppb

 

Cobalt

7440-48-4

 

 

Lead

7439-92-1

15 ppb (action level)

 

Mercury

7439-97-6

2 ppb

 

Nickel

7440-02-0

 

100 ppb (3)

Selenium

7782-49-2

50 ppb

 

Silver

7440-22-4

 

50 ppb (4)

Thallium

7440-28-0

2 ppb

 

Vanadium

7440-62-2

 

 

Zinc

7440-66-6

5000 ppb

 

 

In Table 5, organic concentrations for water samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. No concentrations were detected above the Reporting Limit for all analytes at all sample locations. In addition, the organic concentrations for downstream and the background locations are not greater than the relevant standards and guidelines presented in Table 14 below. [Note: The Reporting Limits for 4,4"-DDT, Endosulfan II, and total PCBs are not adequate to determine if concentrations are below respective standards and/or guidelines.]

Table 14. Relevant Standards and Guidelines for Acceptable Organic Concentrations in Water

Analyte

CAS Number

USEPA Drinking Water Standard (1)

Other Standards and Guidelines

Chlordane (Total)

57-74-9

2 ppb

 

4,4"-DDT

50-29-3

 

0.59 ppt (5)

Dicofol

115-32-2

 

 

Dieldrin

60-57-1

 

 

Endosulfan I (total)

959-98-8

 

56 ppt (6)

Endosulfan II (total)

33213-65-9

 

56 ppt (6)

Endrin

72-20-8

2 ppb

 

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

0.2 ppb

 

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

1 ppb

 

Lindane

58-89-9

0.2 ppb

 

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

3 ppb

 

PCBs (total aroclors)

 

0.5 ppb

 

 

In Table 6, radionuclide concentrations for sediment samples collected from Putah Creek down-stream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the radionuclide concentrations for the background location (Site #4), radionuclide concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location except for Th-234, Ra-226, Pb-212 and K-40 at Site #2 and Cs-137 at Site #1 and #3. However, these slightly elevated concentrations when compared to respective typical radionuclide concentrations in soil are not appreciably different. The typical soil concentrations (7) for Th-234, Ra-226, Pb-212, K-40, and Cs-137 are 1.0 (based on U-238), 1.0, 1.0 (based on Th-228), 10, 0.7 pCi/g, respectively.

In Table 7, metal concentrations for sediment samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the metal concentrations for the background location (Site #4), metal concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location except for chromium, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc at Site #1, zinc at Site #2, and chromium at Site #3. However, the chromium, nickel, silver, and zinc concentrations were only slightly elevated; all of these metals are present naturally in soil. Mercury, however, is not normally present in soil except where mercury-containing minerals are found. The elevated concentrations of mercury found at Site#1 could result in bioconcentration of mercury in fish and other aquatic animals and plants.

In Table 8, organic concentrations for sediment samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. No concentrations were detected above the Reporting Limit for all analytes at all sample locations. Based on these organic analyses, there is no indication of elevated organic concentrations in the Putah Creek sediment.

In Table 9, radionuclide concentrations for fish samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the radionuclide concentrations for the background location (Site #4), radionuclide concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location except for Hg-203 measured in Composite 1 and 2 at Site #1, and Th-232 and Th-228 measured in Composite 2 at Site #1 and the Composite at Site #2. Th-232 and Th-228 are naturally occurring radionuclides, and these concentrations are not appreciably elevated. However, Hg-203 is a man-made radionuclide and does not appear naturally in the environment. The half-life for Hg-203 is 46.61 days; therefore, the Hg-203 release(s) would have had to occurred within about one year or less before September 1996. Note that elevated mercury concentrations were also found in the sediment collected from Site #1; this was the only sediment location with elevated mercury concentrations. However, dose calculations based on the highest Hg-203 concentration plus two standard deviations resulted in 0.0011, 0.0024, and 0.0013 mrem/y for adult-residential, adult-recreational, and child-(5-9y), respectively. These Hg-203 dose concentrations are orders of magnitude below any radiological dose standards such as the USEPA drinking water regulations (1) for gamma emitters of 4 mrem/y. The potential Hg-203 dose from eating fish taken from Putah Creek is of no biological significance and presents no health hazard.

In Table 10, metal concentrations for fish samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. When compared to the metal concentrations for the background location (Site #4), metal concentrations for the downstream sample locations are not appreciably greater than those for the background location except for mercury and lead at Site #1, #2 and #3 and silver at Site #2. The highest mercury concentration, 0.69 ppm, and the highest lead concentration, 1.06 ppm, were measured in fish collected from Site #1. It was noted above that mercury found in the sediment at Site #1 could result in bioconcentration of mercury in fish and other aquatic animals and plants. These results support that statement. Also, when the metal concentrations for down-stream and the background location are compared to the relevant USEPA screening values for fish (8) presented in Table 15, the metal concentrations for the samples are not greater except for the comparison for mercury -- 0.69 ppm compared to 0.6 ppm, and lead -- 1.06 ppm compared to 0.3 ppm. It appears that potential doses of mercury and lead from eating fish taken from some areas of Putah Creek could present a health hazard.

In Table 11, organic concentrations for fish samples collected from Putah Creek downstream from the LEHR are presented. No concentrations were detected above the Reporting Limit for all analytes at all sample locations. In addition, when the organic concentrations for downstream and the background locations are compared to the relevant USEPA screening values for fish (8) presented in Table 15, the organic concentrations for the samples are not greater than those screening values except for dicofol, dieldrin, toxaphene and total PCBs. However, this is an artifact of the NAREL analytical method since the Reporting Limit for each of these three contaminants is

Table 15. Screening Values for Selected Metal and Organic Contaminants in Fish

Analyte

CAS Number

Screening Values from Table 5-2 (8)

(ppm)

Calculated Screening Values by Equation 5-4 (8)

(ppm)

Arsenic (inorganic)

7440-36-0

3

 

Cadmium

7440-43-9

10

 

Mercury

7439-97-6

0.6

 

Lead

7439-92-1

 

0.3 (18) [see Appendix D]

Selenium

7782-49-2

50

 

Silver

7440-22-4

 

32 (19)

Chlordane (total)

57-74-9

0.08

 

4,4"-DDT

50-29-3

0.3

 

Dicofol

115-32-2

10

 

Dieldrin

60-57-1

0.007

 

Endosulfan I and

II (total)

959-98-8

33213-65-9

60

 

Endrin

72-20-8

3

 

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

0.01

 

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

0.07

 

Lindane

58-89-9

0.08

 

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

0.1

 

PCBs (total aroclors)

 

0.01

 

 

greater than the respective screening value. The dicofol, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs Reporting Limits are 20, 0.01, 0.51, and 0.8 ppm compared to the screening values of 10, 0.007, 0.1, and 0.01 ppm, repectively. Nevertheless, based on these organic analyses, there is no indication of elevated organic concentrations in the fish collected from Putah Creek.

CONCLUSIONS

The radionuclide, metal, and organic concentrations in the water collected from Putah Creek are not appreciably elevated as compared to background concentrations or relevant standards and guidelines.

The radionuclide, metal, and organic concentrations in the sediment collected from Putah Creek are not appreciably elevated as compared to background concentrations or typical radionuclide concentrations in soil except for mercury found at Site #1 which could be the source for bioconcentrated mercury in fish and other aquatic animals and plants.

The radionuclide, metal, and organic concentrations in the fish collected from Putah Creek are not appreciably elevated as compared to background concentrations and screening values except for Hg-203 at Site #1 and mercury and lead at Site #1, #2, and #3. Bioconcentrated Hg-203, mercury, and lead are present in the collected fish. The potential radiation doses from Hg-203 by eating fish taken from Putah Creek present no health hazard. However, potential doses of mercury and lead from eating fish taken from Putah Creek present a possible health hazard.

RECOMMENDATIONS

We recommend that the appropriate agency:

Conduct an additional fish study to define the concentration of lead and mercury in different fish species within selected length ranges, i.e., age ranges, so as to determine which fish species should be in a fish advisory, if any, for Putah Creek. [Note: Unlike this initial screening study which investigated many different contaminants (i.e., requires a large number of different analyses and large sample weights), the next study should only address mercury and lead contamination which requires only one aliquot of 50 g-wet for the lead/mercury analysis. Even with a small fish population, a study is then possible based on individual species and length ranges.]

In the interim, consider addressing the possible health hazard associated with the elevated concentrations of lead and mercury found in the fish collected from areas of Putah Creek near the former LEHR site.

Consider investigating whether Hg-203, mercury, and lead are presently being released and, if so, that the releases meet applicable environmental regulations.

REFERENCES

(1) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Code of Federal Regulations. 40 CFR 141.

(2) Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Code of Federal Regulations. 10 CFR 20.

(3) Food and Drug Administration. Federal Register. 58 FR 41612 (1993).

(4) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Register. 45 FR 79318-79319 (1980).

(5) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Code of Federal Regulations. 40 CFR 261, Appendix VIII.

(6) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Endosulfan. Washington, DC: USEPA, OWRS, CSD. EPA 440/5-80-046 (1980).

(7) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Technical Support Document for the Development of Radionuclide Cleanup Levels for Soil. Washington, DC: USEPA, ORIA. EPA 402-R-96-011A (1994).

(8) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories, Volume 1, Fish Sampling and Analysis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: USEPA, OW. EPA 823-R-95-007 (1995).

(9) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Gamma Spectrometry Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(10) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Gross Alpha and Beta Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(11) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Plutonium Radiochemical Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(12) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Strontium Radiochemical Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(13) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Thorium Radiochemical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(14) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Urainium Radiochemical Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(15) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Inorganic Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(16) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, LEHR, Organic Analytical Results (fish--NB#96-00067, sediment--NB#96-00052, and water--NB#96-00051). Montgomery, AL: USEPA, OAR, ORIA, NAREL, MASB (1997).

(17) Sanford Cohen and Associates, Inc. LEHR Analytical Report -- Ra-226, Ra-228, C-14, Co, Ni, and V (fish, sediment, and water). Montgomery, AL: Sanford Cohen and Associates Southeastern Regional Laboratory (1997).

(18) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual, Supplement Guidance "Standard Default Exposure Factors" (Interim Final). Washington, DC: USEPA, OERR, TIB. OSWER Directive 9285.6-03 (1991).

(19) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Cincinnati, OH: USEPA (1989).

 

APPENDIX A

Sampling and Analysis Guidelines for the LEHR Site

Sampling and Analysis Guidelines for Fish, Sediment, and Water Samples from the Putah Creek Adjacent to the Former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research
Davis, CA

Prepared by:

Clinton Cox, PhD
USEPA-NAREL
540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36115-2601

Prepared for:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
1600 Clifton Road, NE
Atlanta, GA 30333

NAREL

National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory

August 24, 1996

1.0 Purpose

In a Site Summary Report entitled "Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California" dated December 1995, prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), a recommendation was made to conduct a screening analysis survey of fish from the Putah Creek. This document provides guidance in the selection, collection, and analysis of fish samples (and collocated sediment and water samples) to be collected from the Putah Creek. It is intended to provide general guidance to personnel who are familiar with and have procedures in place for the collection of fish, sediment and water samples from streams such as that being studied. Directions for packing and shipping of the samples obtained are included. Further, it identifies the radiological and chemical analyses to be performed on the collected and processed samples.

2.0 Potential Contamination of Concern

ATSDR has requested the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) to collect biota (e.g., fish and crayfish) that is present in Putah Creek near the former Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at Davis, CA. We anticipate that the samples [projected to be 8 fish, 4 crayfish plus collocated waters (and possibly water filters) and sediments of 4 samples each] will be collected during the week of 26 August 1996. Analyses for the fish and crayfish will be performed on fillets and tails, respectively. We anticipate that the samples will be available for analysis on about 3 September 1996. The following analyses will be performed on all samples.

Metals

1. Antimony

2. Arsenic (inorganic)*+

3. Barium+

4. Cadmium*+

5. Chromium (total)+

6. Lead+

7. Mercury*+

8. Selenium*+

9. Silver+

10. Thallium

11. Zinc

12. Vanadium

13. Cobalt

14. Nickel

* USEPA Fish Advisories Metal

+ USEPA RCRA Metal

Organochlorine Pesticides

1. Chlordane, total

2. DDT, total

3. Dicofol (kelthane)

4. Dieldrin

5. Endosulfan (I and II)

6. Endrin

7. Heptachlor Epoxide

8. Hexachlorobenzene

9. Lindane

10. Toxaphene

PCBs

1. Total Aroclors (reported as seven individual aroclors, i.e., Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260)

Radionuclides

1. Sr

2. C-14

2. Ra, Th, U, Pu

3. Gross Alpha

4. Gross Beta

5. Gamma Spectrometry

Analytes From EPA's Fish Advisories' Recommended Target Analytes List NOT NEEDED:

1. Metal: Tributyl Tin*

2. Organochlorine Pesticide: Mirex

3. Organophosphate Pesticides

4. Chlorophenoxy Herbicides

5. Dioxins/furans

6. PAHsThe Reporting Limits for the non-rad analytes are presented in Table 1, and the Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for the radionuclides of interest are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

TABLE 1. Reporting Limits of Mixed Waste Analytes for LEHR Environmental Samples



Metals

Water
(100-mL)

SW-846 Method #'s

Soil
(1-g)

SW-846 Method #'s

Fish/Crayfish
(1-g)

SW-846
Method #'s

Antimony

60 g/L

3015/7041

12 mg/Kg*

3051/7041

12 mg/Kg*

3051/7041

Arsenic

10 g/L

3015/7060A

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7060A

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7060A

Barium

200 g/L

3015/7080A

40 mg/Kg*

3051/7080A

40 mg/Kg*

3051/7080A

Cadmium

5 g/L

3015/7131A

1 mg/Kg*

3051/7131A

1 mg/Kg*

3051/7131A

Chromium

10 g/L

3015/7190

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7190

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7190

Lead

3 g/L

3015/7421

0.6 mg/Kg*

3051/7421

0.6 mg/Kg*

3051/7421

Mercury

0.2 g/L

7470A

0.1 mg/Kg*

7471A

0.1 mg/Kg*

7471A

Selenium

5 g/L

3015/7740

1 mg/Kg*

3051/7740

1 mg/Kg*

3051/7740

Silver

10 g/L

3015/7761

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7761

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7761

Thallium

10 g/L

3015/7841

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7841

2 mg/Kg*

3051/7841

Zinc

20 g/L

3015/7950

4 mg/Kg*

3051/7950

4 mg/Kg*

3051/7950

Pesticides/PCBs

Water
( 1-L)

SW-846 Method #'s

Soil
(30-g)

SW-846 Method #'s

Fish/Crayfish
(10-g)

SW-846 Method #'s

Chlordane (total)

0.05 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

1.7 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

5.1 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

4,4' - DDT

0.10 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

3.3 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

10.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Dicofol

0.20 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

6.6 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

20.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Dieldrin

0.10 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

3.3 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

10.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Endosulfan I

0.05 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

1.7 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

5.1 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Endosulfan II

0.10 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

3.3 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

10.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Endrin

0.10 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

3.3 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

10.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Heptachlor Epoxide

0.05 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

1.7 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

5.1 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Hexachlorobenzene

0.05 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

1.7 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

5.1 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Lindane

0.05 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

1.7 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

5.1 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Toxaphene

5.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

170 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

510.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1016

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1221

2.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

67.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

200.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1232

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1242

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1248

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1254

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

Aroclor 1260

1.0 g/L

3510B/3640A/8081

33.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

100.0 g/Kg*

3550A/3640A/8081

* All soil and fish/crayfish units are based on wet weight. Soil samples will be reported on a dry weight basis.

Fish/crayfish samples will be reported on a wet weight basis.

TABLE 2. Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) for Gamma Emitters Using Gamma

Spectrometry with a Ge Detector

Selected Gamma Emitters

MDC (pCi/L)
1 L of Water, 1000 min Count

MDC (pCi/gwet)
1500 g of Sediment, 1000 min Count

MDC (pCi/gwet)
100 g of Sediment, 1000 min Count

MDC (pCi/gwet)
40 g of Sediment, 1000 min Count

MDC (pCi/gwet)
1000 g of Biota, 1000 min Count

Am-241

17.7

0.0179

0.0842

0.168

0.0177

Cd-109

83.0

0.0749

0.424

0.901

0.0830

Th-234

52.5

0.0468

0.270

0.578

0.0525

U-235

56.7

0.0470

0.294

0.684

0.0567

Ra-226

86.1

0.0710

0.446

1.05

0.0861

Th-229

65.6

0.0540

0.340

0.799

0.0656

Pb-212

8.45

0.00689

0.0439

0.104

0.00845

Ra-224

91.0

0.0742

0.473

1.12

0.0910

Ra-223

26.7

0.0216

0.139

0.329

0.0267

Pb-214

11.4

0.00919

0.0601

0.143

0.0114

I-131

5.84

0.00468

0.0307

0.0730

0.0584

Rn-219

69.6

0.0556

0.367

0.873

0.0696

Be-7

45.4

0.0360

0.241

0.574

0.0454

Ba-140

22.2

0.0175

0.119

0.282

0.0222

Rn-220

7110

5.6

38.0

90.4

7.11

Tl-208

6.42

0.00504

0.0344

0.0818

0.00642

Cs-134

6.67

0.00523

0.0357

0.0850

0.00667

Bi-214

13.1

0.0103

0.0704

0.167

0.0131

Cs-137

7.26

0.00567

0.0391

0.0929

0.00726

Bi-212

89.4

0.0696

0.483

1.15

0.0894

Pb-211

188

0.145

1.02

2.42

0.188

Mn-54

7.03

0.00543

0.0382

0.0909

0.00703

Ra-228

24.4

0.0188

0.133

0.317

0.0244

Pa-234m

950

0.728

5.20

12.4

0.950

Co-60

10.3

0.00782

0.0566

0.135

0.0103

Na-22

9.38

0.00712

0.0519

0.123

0.00938

K-40

99.3

0.0749

0.552

1.31

0.0993

NOTE: MDCs will vary depending on activity in the sample, density of sample matrix, efficiency of detector, and other counting parameters. The above MDCs were calculated based on a 1000-min count of a 1.0-L Marinelli of deionized water.

Table 3. NAREL Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) for Selected Radionuclides Using

Various Radiochemical Analyses

Radionuclide

Matrix

Typical

Aliquot Size

Count

Time (min)

Method

MDC

Carbon-14

Solid

0.5 g

100

LS

3 pCi/g

Water

10 mL

100

LS

250 pCi/L

Gross Alpha

Water

250 mL

100

GFP

6 pCi/L

Gross Beta

Water

250 mL

100

GFP

3 pCi/L

Radium-226

Water

1 L

1000

SC

0.02 pCi/L

Solids

0.5 g

1000

SC

0.04 pCi/g

Radium-228

Water

1 L

100

GFP

1 pCi/L

Solids

0.5 g

100

GFP

2 pCi/g

Uranium-234, 235, 238 Thorium-230, 232

Plutonium-238, 239/240

Water

1L

1000

AS

0.1 pCi/L

Solids

0.5 g

1000

AS

0.2 pCi/g

Thorium-227

Water

1L

1000

AS

0.2 pCi/L

Solids

0.5 g

1000

AS

0.35 pCi/g

Thorium-228

Water

1L

1000

AS

0.15 pCi/L

Solids

0.5 g

1000

AS

0.3 pCi/g

AS Alpha Spectrometry GFP Gas-Flow Proportional Counting

LS Liquid Scintillation Counting SC Scintillation Counting

3.0 Sample Collection

3.1 Fish Species

Putah Creek contains an excellent collection of both native and introduced species. There are trout in the upper reaches of Putah Creek, but the LEHR site is low down in the system and the water is warmer. As a result, a background site, where the same warm-water fish may be captured, will be selected near the site. The fish categories and target species are as follows:

Game Fish Category

1) Bluegill, Lepomis Macrochirus

2) Largemouth Bass, Micropterus Salmoides

Bottom-Feeders Category

1) Common Carp, Cyprinus Carpio

2) Catfish, Ictalurus Species

Other Category

1) Crayfish, Astacidae

3.2 Sample Sites

Presently, there is a lot of water in the creek which continues to flow several miles downstream of the site. In recent years, this was not the case during late summer months. Two locations on the South Fork, one at the site and one downstream one or two miles are easily accessible. The North Fork is really not connected to the South Fork (only at high water and by a storm water culvert) or related to it from a contamination standpoint - it is actually a stagnant, ponded stretch. The North Fork was not identified for sampling.

For background sampling, the creek is accessible for several miles upstream. The background site selected is above all influence from the University which is several miles downstream. Several potential sources of pollution are at or near the site including: the UC Davis waste water treatment plant which discharges immediately upstream of the site at the Old Davis Road bridge crossing, a storm channel which cuts through the old landfill which is part of the site on the downstream side (it is usually dry), other departments of the University located upstream, and the University landfill located near the County Road 98 crossing of Putah Creek.

The following four sampling locations (one a background location) were selected:

Location #1 - South Fork Putah Creek - downstream of Old Davis Road and adjacent to the site.

Location #2 - South Fork Putah Creek - 1 mile downstream of Old Davis Road and 0.6 miles downstream of storm drain on eastern edge of LEHR site.

Location #3 - South Fork Putah Creek - 2 mile downstream of Old Davis Road and 1.6 miles downstream of storm drain on eastern edge of LEHR site.

Location #4 - South Fork Putah Creek - a background site located upstream, west of Davis off Putah Creek Road near Stevenson Bridge Road crossing.

3.3 Sampling Method

Fish, sediment and water samples will be collected and shipped, under chain-of-custody, by documented procedures currently in use by USEPA Region 9. The fish samples may be, depending upon availability, composites of different species from a single sample location. However, identifiers and records of individual species should be maintained during sampling and on the chain-of-custody form. If composites are necessary, they will be performed at the laboratory. If possible, it is desirable to have 1 kg of each fish species collected to be included in the composites.

3.3.1 Fish Sampling

Sampling for fish will be accomplished with a seine. If seining success is poor due to snags, a backpack electroshocker will be used from a 13-ft boat. Seining should work well upstream, but habitat at the site and downstream may make seining difficult. Crayfish will be captured in baited crayfish traps. A minimum of 2 kg of each fish category will be required. The level of effort, gear used, and fish sampling information will be recorded in field logbooks.

3.3.2 Water Sampling

Grab surface water samples will be collected directly into sample container (at least 2 L for metals, 2 L for pesticides/PCBs, and 8 L for rad) near the stream center in proximity of the locations where the crayfish samples were collected. Field duplicates and collocated samples will also be collected at Sample Location #1. If particulate is visible in the metal or rad water samples, the particulate will be removed with a 0.45-m filter. Each container (and 0.45-m filter, if present) will be clearly marked as to the analysis to be performed. Filters will not be analyzed unless greater than 5 g of particulate is present. Nitric acid will be used to adjust the pH of the metal and rad water samples (after filtering) to 2. Water sampling information will be recorded in field logbooks.

3.3.3 Sediment Sampling

Grab sediment samples (at least 800 g for metals, 400 g for pesticides/PCBs, and 2000 g for rad) will be collected to a sediment depth of about 15 cm using a dredge such as an Eckman, Ponar, or Petersen dredge or, if appropriate, a coring device can be used. The sediment samples will be collected in proximity of the locations where the crayfish and water samples were collected. Sediment samples will be transferred to the appropriate container and clearly marked as to the analysis to be performed. Field duplicates and collocated samples will also be collected at Sample Location #1. Sediment sampling information will be recorded in field logbooks.

3.3.4 Sample Containers, Storage, and Shipment

Sample containers, acid preservative, and packaging will be selected to suit the analytical needs and to follow sampling and analysis procedures. Samples should be maintained at 42oC and shipped to NAREL for next day delivery. Peter Husby, John Griggs, and Mike Clark will coordinate the sample volumes, containers, preservative, storage, and shipping requirements for this survey.

4.0 Analyses

The fish collected from Putah Creek will be analyzed per NAREL standard analytical procedures for radioactive and target analytes listed in Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contamination Data For Use in Fish Advisories, Volume 1, Fish Sampling and Analysis, Second Edition, September 1995 and Section 2.0 Potential Contamination of Concern above. Analyses will be performed on the fish fillets and crayfish tails. The QAPP applicable to this project is Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radiochemical Measurements to Provide Technical Support for NAREL Environmental Evaluation at Department of Energy Sites.

5.0 Shipping Instructions

The samples are to be maintained at 42oC while waiting for shipment to NAREL. Sediment and water samples will be shipped in picnic coolers, along with chain-of-custody forms. Each fish sample obtained should be placed whole in labeled, zip-lock freezer bags, along with the chain-of-custody forms, packed in ice inside a picnic cooler of sufficient size and shipped via overnight delivery to:

USEPA-NAREL
540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, AL 3611-2601
Contact: Susan Baker, Sample Prep
(334) 270-7052

Sample Prep at NAREL should be informed a minimum of three days in advance of the impending arrival of the samples. If needed, NAREL will provide shipping containers, survey supplies, and shipping invoices.

6.0 Data Reporting

NAREL will produce a data quality package which includes the QA/QC data for the project. Also, a NAREL Technical Report will be written that includes the survey results in table form, a discussion of the results, conclusions and recommendations, as appropriate.

Appendix B

Field Sampling Summary for Sampling from Putah Creek Adjacent to the Former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research
Davis, CA

Prepared by:

Peter Husby
USEPA Region 9 Laboratory
337 S. 46th St.; Building 201
Richmond, CA 94804

INTRODUCTION

Background

This sampling event near the Former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Site in Davis, CA was performed to assist the USEPA-National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in conducting a screening analysis survey of fish from Putah Creek. The sampling was performed by personnel from the USEPA Region 9 Laboratory. Sampling was performed in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Guidelines (see Appendix A) document dated August 24, 1996. These Guidelines provided general guidance in the selection, collection, and analysis of fish samples (and collocated sediment and water samples) to be collected from the Putah Creek. This document outlines the specific methods used and the dates and times of all collections. Sampling occurred between August 27 and September 12, 1996.

Sample Locations

The following four locations were sampled:

Site #1 - South Fork Putah Creek - downstream of Old Davis Road and adjacent to the site.

Lat/Lon - N 38O 31'2.0" W 121O 45'22.1"

Site #2 - South Fork Putah Creek - 1 mile downstream of Old Davis Road and 0.6 miles downstream of storm drain on eastern edge of LEHR site. Lat/Lon - N 38O 31' 1.6" W 121O 43'58.0"

Site #3 - South Fork Putah Creek - 2 mile downstream of Old Davis Road and 1.6 miles downstream of storm drain on eastern edge of LEHR site. Lat/Lon - N 38O 31' 0.7" W 121O 42'46.8"

Site #4 - South Fork Putah Creek - a background site located upstream, west of Davis upstream of Pedrick Road crossing. Lat/Lon - N 38O 31'34.4" W 121O 48'42.9"

SAMPLING METHODS

Fish Sampling

Fish collection occurred over several days and involved various methods, as required by the habitats and conditions encountered at each site. Electrofishing occurred over larger reaches, while netting was limited to specific locations, near the crayfish traps and sediment and water collection points. The fish which were collected or trapped were stored on ice during the day in the field and placed in the freezer upon return to the Region IX Lab. Identifications were made in the field and verified in the lab prior to shipment. See Table B-1 for dates of sampling, and Table B-2 for a summary of the fish species collected and the total lengths and weights of the specimens collected. Specific information on collection methods used at each site is outlined below:

Site #1 - Due to the depth of the reach, seining was not possible. Electroshocking was attempted, using a backpack shocker mounted on a 13-foot boat, with no success. Finally, sufficient sample was collected with two Fyke nets. The nets were set on 9/11 and the fish collected on 9/12.

Site #2 - Due to the depth and width of the reach, seining was not possible. Electroshocking was attempted using a backpack shocker mounted on a 13-foot boat. Although success was limited, minimum tissue for both game and bottom-fish was collected.

Site #3 - This site was also too deep and wide for seining or backpack electroshocking. In addition, there was no access point for a boat and access upstream and downstream of the location was obstructed by thick brush. Therefore, a large mesh (6 inch) gill net and a hoop net were set. These nets were set on 9/10 and checked on 9/11 and 9/12. Adequate sample of both game and bottom fish were obtained in that time frame.

Site #4 - This background site was initially sampled by seine on 8/27 with no success. As a result of the shallow, fast moving nature of most of the reach, backpack electroshocking was the easiest method of collection and was used exclusively at this site. The upper end of the reach was too deep and wide for electroshocking on foot and no boat access was available. Adequate game fish sample was collected after several days effort (8/27-28 and 9/3-4), but sufficient bottom-feeder tissue was not collected.

Crayfish were captured in baited crayfish traps. One trap was set at each site on 8/27. An additional trap was set at Sites 1 and 4. The two traps at Site 4 were removed on 9/4 and placed at Sites 2 & 3. All traps at Sites 1, 2 & 3 were removed on 9/12. Traps were baited with canned cat food and were checked each day samplers were on site. All crayfish collected were live and were placed on ice while in the field, then frozen at the Region 9 Lab until shipment to NAREL.

Surface Water Sampling

Grab surface water samples were collected directly into the sample containers. The samples were collected in the stream flow near the locations where the crayfish traps were set, and the sediment samples were collected. Field duplicates were collected at Site #1. As no visible particulate matter was noted in the samples, filtration was performed. All samples were kept on ice until shipment to NAREL. See Table B-1 for dates and times.

Sediment Sampling

A hand core was used to collect multiple sediment cores which were composited and then placed in sample containers. The sediments collected were soft sediments in close proximity to the crayfish traps and water sample locations. Field duplicates and collocated samples were collected at Site #1. All samples were kept on ice until shipment to NAREL. See Table B-1 for dates and times.

TABLE B-1
Sample Collection Summary

Location

Fish Date

Crayfish Date

Sediment

Date/Time

Water

Date/Time

Site # 1

9/11-12/96

8/27 - 9/12/96

8/28/96 13:30

8/28/96 13:30

Site # 2

9/9/96

8/27 - 9/12/96

8/28/96 15:30

8/28/96 15:30

Site # 3

9/10-12/96

8/27 - 9/12/96

8/29/96 11:45

8/29/96 11:15

Site # 4

8/27-28, 9/3-4/96

8/27 - 9/4/96

8/27/96 11:10

8/27-28/96 10:35

TABLE B-2
Fish Species Summary

Location

Common Name

Scientific Name

Number Collected

Total Length
(cm)

Weight
(g)

Site # 1

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

2

23.6

26.9

191

280

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

2

27.2

35.0

312

764

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

1

17.0

118

White catfish

Ameiurus catus

2

33.5

38.9

638

783

Black bullhead

Ameiurus melas

4

22.1

22.4

26.9

27.7

204

219

362

312

Crayfish

 

10

---

394

Site # 2

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

1

33

580

Black bullhead

Ameiurus melas

1

22.9

194

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

1

---

1500

Crayfish

 

9

---

288

Site # 3

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

3

27.9

29.0

31.8

308

346

520

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

2

22.4

23.4

172

173

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

1

52.1

1621

White catfish

Ameiurus catus

1

60.4

2538

Crayfish

 

9

---

265

Site # 4

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

3

6.1

14.2

20.6

3

49

120

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

78

---

1845

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

43

---

578

White catfish

Ameiurus catus

1

17.0

67

Crayfish

 

8

---

203

Appendix C

General Information for Various NAREL Analytical Methods

Gamma Spectrometry:

The reporting format in the NAREL Data Quality Packages lists the gamma emitters in alphabetical order. The activity and 2-sigma uncertainty for radionuclides measured by gamma spectroscopy are reported only if the nuclide is detected. Nuclides that are not detected do not appear in the report, with the exception of Ba-140, Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, K-40, Ra-226 and Ra-228. If one of these seven nuclides is undetected, NAREL reports it as "Not Detected" or "ND" and provides a sample-specific estimate of the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC).

Due to potential spectral interferences and other possible problems associated with the determination of the activity of certain radionuclides, the activities for Th-234, Pa-234m, Ra-226, and U-235 are subject to greater possible error than other commonly reported radionuclides. Note that this potential error is not included in the 2-sigma counting error which is reported with each activity. Although in NAREL reports, the calculated activities for these radionuclides are provided, it is recommend that the results be used only as a qualitative means of indicating the presence of these radionuclides and not as a quantitative measure of their concentration. The results for these nuclides are not used in the evaluation of quality control samples. Furthermore, because of mutual interference between Ra-226 and U-235, NAREL's gamma analysis software tends to overestimate the amounts of these nuclides whenever both are present in a sample. Lower estimates for Ra-226 activities can be obtained from the reported activities of its decay products, Pb-214 and Bi-214, which are likely to be somewhat less than the Ra-226 activity because of the potential escape of radon gas.

NAREL's gamma spectroscopy software corrects activities and MDCs for decay between collection and analysis, but only up to a limit of ten half-lives. So, if the decay time for a sample is more than ten half-lives of a radionuclide, that nuclide will almost always be undetected and the reported MDC will be meaningless. This is usually a problem only for short-lives radionuclides, such as I-131 and Ba-140, when there is a long delay between collection and analysis.

Gross Alpha and Beta Analysis:

In comparison to the methods employed to determine radionuclide-specific activities, the method employed by NAREL to determine gross alpha and beta activity in water samples has the potential for greater analytical bias. It should be noted that this potential analytical error is not included in the 2-sigma counting error term. Therefore, gross alpha and beta results should be used as gross approximations of the alpha and beta activity present.

Thorium Radiochemical Analysis:

In analyzing samples for U-234 and U-238, U-232 is used as a tracer to determine the chemical recovery. Th-228 is produced from the radioactive decay of U-232 and since it is one of the thorium isotopes of concern, the small amount of Th-228 present once the tracer has been prepared for use, along with its ingrowth from the time of preparation to its use, is substracted from the Th-228 activity measured. Occasionally, our estimate of the Th-228 originally present in the tracer is too high. If the sample Th-228 activity is very low, overestimation of the Th-228 present in the tracer may result in a negative Th-228 activity for the sample.

Appendix D

Screening Value Calculation for Consumption of Lead-Contaminated Fish

The USEPA has established a safe action level of lead in drinking water of 0.015 mgPb/L (1) using default values of 2.0 L/day for water intake and 70 kg for the weight of an adult male. Within the USEPA Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories (8), a Screening Value (SVPb) for lead was not specified. Presented below are the assumptions and calculations used to estimate a SVPb for comparative use in this study.

Assumptions:

(1) The same Reference Dose (RfD) is applicable regardless whether the lead intake is from drinking water or eating contaminated fish. [Note: This assumption is conservative toward the protection of the public.]

(2) The most sensitive sub-population is children 9-12 yr of age who are likely to fish a small creek and eat the fish taken (parents and siblings may do the same for the family).

(3) The weight of 9-12 yr old children is 36 kg (8).

(4) The daily intake for locally caught fish is 54 g/day (18). [Note: This assumption is conservative toward the protection of the public.]

Calculations:

(1) RfD = (0.015 mgPb/L x 2.0 L/day)/70 kgm = 0.00043 mgPb/kgm-day

(2) SVPb = (0.00043 mgPb/kgm-day x 36 kgm)/(54 gf/day x kgf/1000 gf) = 0.3 mgPb/kgf

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